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Technical Issues
3/2016 pp. 79-85

Ekstrahenty przemysłu hydrometalurgicznego

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The rapid development of the hydrometallurgical industry is the answer to the constantly decreasing resources of rich metal ores and the need for separation of metals from low-grade ores, conglomerates and various types of industrial wastes. The development of more effective leaching methods, as well as obtaining new, selective extractants, which are used for the purification of leach solutions in an extraction-stripping step, are the reason for the great progress that has been made in this industry. The appropriate selection of the extraction conditions (pH, the concentration of an extractant, the presence of a modifier) can highlight the advantages of the extractant and minimize its disadvantages, and thereby it makes the extraction process highly efficient. The use of selective extractants in relation to the selected metal ions, reduces the total cost of the recovery of metals from ores and secondary raw materials. The requirements for extractants, and discussion of extractants main groups (acidic, alkaline, chelating, and solvating) are presented in this paper. The reactions occurring in the two-phase systems in the extraction of metal ions, and the extractants most commonly used in hydrometallurgical processes are shown.

Key words

extractant, hydrometallurgy, extraction, recovery of metals, metal ores


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