backBack to 4/2016
Technical Issues
4/2016 pp. 62-67

Emulsja oleju napędowego jako paliwo alternatywne

pdf Get full text pdf


Emulsified water-in-Diesel fuel is a solution that helps to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters in compression-ignition engines. The biggest advantage of this fuel is a possibility to introduce it to older generation units without any modifications. The presented solution allows the mixture to be burned more complete which results in less soot formation. However, the practical application of this fuel is limited mainly because its limited stability. In this article we review the following issues connected with water-in diesel fuel: its production, stability, influence on engine performance and environmental benefits. The main aspect of this paper is to review the advantages related to better combustion of such emulsion and reduction in emission of health hazardous substances.

Key words

water-in-Diesel emulsion, alternative fuel, emulsion stability, microexplosion


1. Alahmer, A., Yamin, J., Sakhrieh, A., Hamdan, M.A., Engine performance using emulsified diesel fuel, Energy Conversion and Management, 2010, Vol. 51, Issue 8, pp. 1708-1713.

2. Abu-Zaid, M., An experimental study of the evaporation characteristics of emulsified liquid droplets, Heat and Mass Transfer/Waerme und Stoffuebertagung, 2004, Vol. 40, No. 9, pp. 737-741.

3. Altpetrol, Materiały konferencyjne, Sala dei Capitani, Palace of St. George, Genoa, Italy, Environmental Management Event Sponsored by the Port Authority of Genoa, 2011, Dec. 14.

4. Armas, O., Ballesteros, R., Martos, F.J., Agudelo, J.R., Characterization of light duty diesel engine pollutant emissions using water-emulsified fuel, Fuel, 2005, Vol. 84, No. 7-8, pp. 1011–1018.

5. Avulapati, M.M., Ganippa, L.H., Xia, J., Megaritis, A., Puffing and micro-explosion of diesel–biodiesel–ethanol blends, Fuel, Vol. 2016, 166, pp. 59–66.

6. Barnes, A., Duncan, D., Marshall, J., Psaila, A., Chadderton, J., Eastlake, A., Evaluation of water-blend fuels in a city bus and an assessment of performance with emission control devices, in: Proceedings of the Better air Quality Motor Vehicle Control & Technology Workshop, 2000.

7. Chen, G., Tao, D., An experimental study of stability of oil-water emulsion, Fuel Processing Technology, 2005, Vol. 86, No 5, pp. 499-508.

8. Fu, W.B., Hou, L.Y., Wang, L., Ma, F.H., A unified model for the micro-explosion of emulsified droplets of oil and water, Fuel Processing Technology, 2002, Vol. 79, No. 2, pp. 107–119.

9. Ghojel, J., Honnery, D., Al-Khaleefi, K., Performance, emissions and heat release characteristics of direct injection diesel engine operating on diesel oil emulsion, Applied Thermal Engineering, 2006, Vol. 26, No. 17-18, pp. 2132–2144.

10. Kannan, K., Udayakumar, M., 2009. NOx and HC emission control using water emulsified diesel in single cylinder diesel engine, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2009, Vol. 4, No. 8, pp. 59– 62.

11. Lif, A., Holmberg, K., Water-in-diesel emulsions and related systems, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 2006, 123–126, pp. 231–239.

12. Lin, C.Y., Wang, K.H., Diesel engine performance and emission characteristics using three-phase emulsions as fuel, Fuel, 2004, Vol. 83, No. 4-5, pp. 537–545.

13. Park, J., Huh, K., Park, K.,  Experimental study on the combustion characteristics of emulsified diesel in a rcem, in: Proceedings of the Seoul FISITA World Automotive Congress, Seoul, Republic of Korea, June 2000.

14. Sane, H., Purandare, N., Barve, O., Todakar, A., Emission Reduction of IC engines by using water-in-diesel emulsion and catalytic converter, International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 2014, Vol. 03, Issue: 08, pp. 378-383.

15. Selim, M.Y. E., Elfeky, S.M.S., Effects of diesel/water emulsion on heat flow and thermal loading in a precombustion chamber diesel engine, Applied Thermal Engineering, 2001, Vol. 21, No. 15, pp. 1565–1582.

16. Samec, N., Dobovisek, Z., Hribernik, A., The Effect of Water emulsified in diesel fuel on diesel fuel on exhaust emission, Goriva i Maziva, 2000, Vol. 39, pp. 377–392.

17. Sierpniowska, O., Technologia postaci leku. Emulsje, Aptekarz Polski, Manuał Aptekarski, 2015, nr 112/90, (dostęp 4.01.2016).

18. Schubert, H., Armbruster, H., Principles of formation and stability of emulsions, International Journal of Chemical Engineering, 1992, 32, pp. 14–28.

19. Maiboom, A., Tauzia, X., NOx and PM emissions reduction on an automotive HSDI Diesel engine with water-in-diesel emulsion and EGR: an experimental study, Fuel, 2011, Vol. 90, No. 11, pp. 3179–3192.

20. Morozumi, Y., Saito, Y., Effect of physical properties on microexplosion occurrence in water-in-oil emulsion droplets, Energy and Fuels, 2010, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 1854–1859.

21. Nadeem, M., Rangkuti, C., Anuar, K., Haq, M.R.U., Tan, I.B., Shah, S.S., Diesel engine performance and emission evaluation using emulsified fuels stabilized by conventional and gemini surfactants, Fuel, 2006, Vol. 85, No. 14-15, pp. 2111–2119.

22. Watanabe, H., Suzuki, Y., Harada, T., Matsushita, Y., Aoki, H., Miura, T., An experimental investigation of the breakup characteristics of secondary atomization of emulsified fuel droplet, Energy, 2010, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 806–813.

23. Yahaya, K., Karim, A., Hagos, Y., Rashid, A., Tan, M., Current trends in Water-in Diesel Emulsion as a Fuel, The Scientific World Journal, Vol. 2014, Article ID 527472.